Dr. Lawrence H. Diller’s book, The Last Normal Child: Essays on the Intersection of Kids, Culture, and Psychiatric Drugs, is a fascinating and provocative work. As an experienced developmental/behavioral pediatrician, Diller examines the current trend to quickly diagnose attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the perfunctory prescription of stimulant drugs even when there is scarce evidence regarding academic improvement, social improvement, or long-term efficacy.
Diller’s perspective is quite evenly balanced; he prescribes stimulant medication for ADHD when indicated, but only as part of thorough assessment and comprehensive management program.
It is clear that Diller believes that ADHD is being over diagnosed. He states that over the last 15 years brand name stimulant production has increased by an astounding 1700% and generic stimulants by more than 3000%!
The number of U.S. children taking psychotropic drugs has doubled over the last ten years. We currently have more than 4.5 million children under 18 taking psychotropic drugs – mostly stimulants. Perhaps even more alarming are the percentages of ADHD children being reported by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC): typically common rates between 5% to 7% are reported in children in Colorado and 5.5% in California. However, as many as 10.5% of children in Louisiana are diagnosed with ADHD as are 11% of children in Alabama.
Diller suggests that the rampant diagnosis and pharmacological treatment of ADHD might be related to the fact that, “The drug industry hijacked American psychiatry in the 1990s….Insurance companies structure doctors’ reimbursement so as to reward short visits, ones in which a prescription brings the session to a definite conclusion.”
Diller also suggests that the Individuals with Disability Education Act of 1990, actually accelerated pharmacological treatment as well as the ADHD diagnosis because its amendment in 1991 now included ADHD as a diagnosis that makes a child eligible for special services and accommodations in public schools. As parents quickly learned, an ADHD diagnosis could gain their child special services and testing accommodations.
The pharmaceutical industry parleyed this trend by targeting parents with direct ADHD drug advertising. Parents, having diagnosed their child via the effects of the advertising campaign, could now approach their family practitioner to request stimulant drugs as a remedy. Diller suggests that many parents welcomed a brain-focused diagnosis that relieved them of responsibility for problem behavior.
The book encompasses far more than I’ve described here and is well worth reading. It is an excellent, balanced perspective that provides insight into the staggering $3 billion juggernaut known as ADHD.